The role of creatine and stronger muscles
Dr. Ni's OC2 includes creatine because research has shown it to be effective at boosting muscle strength in adults of all ages (not just athletes!) when combined with exercise.
Maintaining strong muscles provides a range of benefits throughout life, but research shows stronger muscles can also provide a really significant payoff as we grow older by helping to reduce falls in our senior years, a significant cause of serious injury including bone fractures.
Check out the research below, and see for yourself why Dr. Ni's OC2 is inspired to go beyond your typical bone health supplement and provide total frame support for adults who want to stay strong and active.*
Articles, Papers, and References
Creatine supplementation enhances isometric strength and body composition improvements following strength exercise training in older adults.
Brose A, Parise G, Tarnopolsky MA. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2003 Jan;58(1):11-9.
Creatine supplementation improves muscular performance in older men.
Gotshalk LA, Volek JS, Staron RS, et al. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002 Mar;34(3):537-43.
Strategic creatine supplementation and resistance training in healthy older adults. .
Darren G. Candow, Emelie Vogt, Sarah Johannsmeyer, Scott C. Forbes, Jonathan P. Farthing. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 2015, 40(7): 689-694, 10.1139/apnm-2014-0498
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International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: safety and efficacy of creatine supplementation in exercise, sport, and medicine.
Effect of creatine supplementation during cast-induced immobilization on the preservation of muscle mass, strength, and endurance.
Johnston AP, Burke DG, MacNeil LG, Candow DG. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23(1):116–120.
Oral creatine supplementation facilitates the rehabilitation of disuse atrophy and alters the expression of muscle myogenic factors in humans.
Hespel P, Op't EijndeB, Van Leemputte M, et al. J Physiol. 2001;15536(Pt 2):625–633.
Muscle Strength + Bone Health
The effect of fall prevention exercise programmes on fall induced injuries in community dwelling older adults: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.
El-Khoury F, Cassou B, Charles MA, Dargent-Molina P. BMJ. 2013;347
Interventions for preventing falls in older people living in the community (Review).
Gillespie LD, Robertson MC, Gillespie WJ, Lamb SE, Gates S, Cumming RG, Rowe BH. 2009 The Cochrane Collaboration.
The effects of exercise on falls in elderly patients. A preplanned meta-analysis of the FICSIT Trials. Frailty and Injuries: Cooperative Studies of Intervention Techniques.
Province MA, Hadley EC, Hornbrook MC, Lipsitz LA, Miller JP, Mulrow CD, Ory MG, Sattin RW, Tinetti ME, Wolf SL. JAMA. 1995;273(17):1341.
The recent prevalence of osteoporosis and low bone mass in the United States based on bone mineral density at the femoral neck or lumbar spine.
Wright NC, Looker AC, Saag KG, Curtis JR, Delzell ES, Randall S, Dawson-Hughes B. J Bone Miner Res 29(11):2520–6. 2014.
An overview of sarcopenia: facts and numbers on prevalence and clinical impact.
Stephan von Haehling, John E. Morley, Stefan D. Anker, J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2010 Dec; 1(2): 129–133. Published online 2010 Dec 17. doi: 10.1007/s13539-010-0014-2 PMCID: PMC3060646
Exercise and fall prevention: narrowing the research-to-practice gap and enhancing integration of clinical and community practice.
Li F, Eckstrom E, Harmer P, Fitzgerald K, Voit J, Cameron KA, J Am Geriatr Soc. 2016 Feb;64(2):425-31. Epub 2016 Jan 30.
Calcium, Magnesium, and Vitamin D
Calcium citrate and vitamin D in the treatment of osteoporosis.
Quesada Gómez JM1, Blanch Rubió J, Díaz Curiel M, Díez Pérez A. Clin Drug Investig. 2011;31(5):285-98.
Meta-analysis of calcium bioavailability: a comparison of calcium citrate with calcium carbonate.
Sakhaee K1, Bhuket T, Adams-Huet B, Rao DS. Am J Ther. 1999 Nov;6(6):313-21.
Magnesium deficiency and osteoporosis: animal and human observations.
Rude RK, Gruber HE J Nutr Biochem. 2004 Dec;15(12):710-6.
Vitamin D2 is much less effective than vitamin D3 in humans.
Armas LA, Hollis BW, Heaney R. J. Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89(11):5387.
Evidence that vitamin D3 increases serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D more efficiently than does vitamin D2.
Trang HM, Cole DE, Rubin LA, Pierratos A, Siu S, Vieth R. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;68:854-858.
Effect of cholecalciferol and calcium supplementation on muscle strength and energy metabolism in vitamin D-deficient Asian Indians: a randomized, controlled trial.
Gupta R., Sharma U., Gupta N., et al. Clinical Endocrinology.2010;73(4):445–451.
Effect of vitamin D supplementation on muscle strength, gait and balance in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Muir S. W., Montero-Odasso M. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.2011;59(12):2291–2300.
Effects of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on falls: a randomized controlled trial.
Bischoff H. A., Stähelin H. B., Dick W., et al. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 2003;18(2):343–351.
Effects of a long-term vitamin D and calcium supplementation on falls and parameters of muscle function in community-dwelling older individuals.
Pfeifer M., Begerow B., Minne H. W., Suppan K., Fahrleitner-Pammer A., Dobnig H. Osteoporosis International. 2009;20(2):315–322.
Always consult your doctor prior to beginning any supplement or exercise regimen.